Many weapons in the game (except those with a splash) have a chance to do a critical damage. As in many other games, here it just means a double damage. An additional benefit the critical damage has is that it surpasses monsters' armor (resistance), which is very helpful in the late game. Monsters also can do critical damage and it also ignores armor... One way to improve the critical chance is to get Headhunter perk, which will give the crit even to weapons that never had it, unless those weapons have a splash (like shotguns).
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